Many of the early immigrant groups established "culture niches" or turf control over certain public sector jobs, businesses and vocations.

When these groups cornered niches, they then had avenues for providing employment, business, and political opportunities to incoming members of their group. Control of these social and economic areas promoted intra-group dependency. They provided opportunities to attract capital, market their culture, maintain a community economic and exact ethnic economic accountability. Black communities do not own or control socioeconomic centers, within their communities.

Douglas Glasgow writes in the book 'The Black Underclass':
"The Italians sought and ruled the shipyards, docks, unions, ethnic restaurants, and fire departments; Jews took over the garment and jewelry industries, banking and lending industries, major professions and entertainment.  The Irish dominated the alcoholic manufacturing, distilling and distribution industries, police departments and bars; Asians established ethnic-oriented communities, restaurants, cleaners, stores, and supply houses."

Blacks were not permitted to establish culture-based businesses. Prior to Emancipation, the North and South enacted laws and ordinances that prohibited blacks from owning businesses that competed with whites.  Even after Emancipation, that remained the case.  Blacks were prohibited by the legal and social sanctions that withheld capital, market opportunities, access to resources and education from establishing businesses. Even in raising tobacco, cotton, and various livestock, where blacks had unquestionable skill, they were generally forbidden to raise and sell their product in competition with whites.

The horse racing industry is another example.  After the Civil War and until the first decade of the 20th century, black jockeys dominated the horse racing industry.  Although they were skilled jockeys and horse trainers, blacks were not allowed to development any businesses based upon their experience around the tracks. By the second decade of the 20th century horse racing had become a major sport and wealth building business.  Black jockeys and trainers were replaced by white trainers and Hispanic jockeys.

Black were not allowed to compete with whites at any level of life. No other racial or ethnic immigrants have been confronted with such systematic opposition to their personal freedom, economic independence and right to earn a living.  Claude Aanderson